Titanium & Unity3D for iOS: Notes on Flurry Analytics – Parameters Take a Week to Show Up in Reports

I used an open source Flurry module developed by SoftGravity. It was easy to implement and seems to be working well. One potentially confusing thing with Flurry’s dashboard is that it’s not immediately clear how long it takes data to populate the various charts & reports.

“You currently have no event parameters to track.”

For example, I can see my parameter Name / Value pairs Event Logs. The little pie chart icon for Event Parameters shows up next to my events that have parameters. However, when I try to look at any of the reports for parameters that show up in the Event Logs I constantly get this message with no additional details: “You currently have no event parameters to track.” None of the FAQ pages on flurry.com mention this situation.

After installing the module, I’m calling logEvent, after initiating flurry w/ my API KEY, like so:

//in app.js: 
var flurry = require('sg.flurry');
	flurry.secureTransport(true); //use https to send request to make them more safe
	flurry.logUncaughtExceptions(true); //logs exception in objective-c code
	flurry.startSession('YOUR_API_KEY_HERE'); 
...

//in a content .js file:
flurry.logEvent( "My Footer Event" , {myfooter_link: 'Contact Us'} ); 

48 hrs after I created my application in the Flurry admin dashboard, this problem still persisted. At the time I was using Titanium SDK 2.1.3.GA and Titanium Studio, build: 2.1.2.201208301612.

Give it at least a week

5 days after I created the app in Flurry’s dashboard and started posting data to the Event Logs, my Event Parameters finally started showing up in the reports and the “You currently have no event parameters to track” message went away.

I first tried Flurry a while back with a test Unity3D project, using Prime31’s great Flurry for iOS plugin. It seemed to work well, but at the time, I didn’t pay much attention to the Event Parameters and how long they take to show up in the reports. Looking at my old Unity test data in Flurry’s dashboard, they’re certainly there now.

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Unity3D for Android: Using a Native Java Plugin to Grab the Android Device ID

The java code returns an MEID (Android Device ID) on CDMA phones (Verizon, Sprint), an IMEI on GSM phones (AT&T, T Mobile) and an Android ID on WIFI-only devices (no cellular network).

This code is based on Android Java Plugin for Unity example project in the Unity manual.

Why bother with a plugin?

I tried using Unity 3.5’s built-in SystemInfo.deviceUniqueIdentifier getter for obtaining a unique device ID but it didn’t meet our ad network’s requirements.

The set up in Unity 3.5

  • Drag the AndroidJava.jar file inside /Assets/Plugins/Android/. /Assets/Plugins/Android/bin/ worked too. This .jar file is created via Eclipse or command line javac based on the Java source code
  • Drag the example libjni.so file inside /Assets/Plugins/Android/. Make sure it’s inside /Plugins/Android or you’ll get a “DllNotFoundException: jni” error when you test on device with adb.
  • Drag JNI.cs into /Assets/Plugins/
  • Drag JavaVM.cs into /Assets/Plugins/
  • Make sure your project has an AndroidManifest.xml file inside /Assets/Plugins/Android/ with android.permission.READ_PHONE_STATE permission set. android.permission.READ_PHONE_STATE is needed to access an Android phone/tablet’s Android ID, IMEI or MEID. If you’re making HTTP calls you’ll also need additional permissions, etc.

Code that worked:

...
	private static IntPtr	JavaClass; 
	private static int		GetDeviceId;
...

	///if you're calling the plugin from a static method, you still have to make sure an instance of this script is attached to 
	///an empty GameObject in Hierarchy so Start() method runs & the below code initializes:	
	void Start() {
		
		#if UNITY_ANDROID 		
		
			// attach our thread to the java vm; obviously the main thread is already attached but this is good practice..
			JavaVM.AttachCurrentThread();
			
			// first we try to find our main activity..
			IntPtr cls_Activity		= JNI.FindClass("com/unity3d/player/UnityPlayer");
			int fid_Activity		= JNI.GetStaticFieldID(cls_Activity, "currentActivity", "Landroid/app/Activity;");
			IntPtr obj_Activity		= JNI.GetStaticObjectField(cls_Activity, fid_Activity);
			Debug.Log("obj_Activity = " + obj_Activity);		
			
			// create a JavaClass object...
               //"com/yourCompany/yourProjectName" should be your Bundle ID in Unity's Player Settings & should be the package name in your Java class
			IntPtr cls_JavaClass	= JNI.FindClass("com/yourCompany/yourProjectName/JavaClass"); 	
			int mid_JavaClass		= JNI.GetMethodID(cls_JavaClass, "<init>", "(Landroid/app/Activity;)V");
			IntPtr obj_JavaClass	= JNI.NewObject(cls_JavaClass, mid_JavaClass, obj_Activity);
			Debug.Log("java Helper object = " + obj_JavaClass);		
			
			// create a global reference to the JavaClass object and fetch method id(s)..
			JavaClass					= JNI.NewGlobalRef(obj_JavaClass);
			GetDeviceId					= JNI.GetMethodID(cls_JavaClass, "GetDeviceId", "()Ljava/lang/String;");
			Debug.Log("JavaClass global ref = " + JavaClass);
			Debug.Log("JavaClass GetDeviceId method id = " + GetDeviceId);						
		
		#endif			
	}	
...

	/// <summary>
	/// Gets the unique device for Android devices (IMEI, MEID or Android ID).
	/// </summary>
	/// <returns>
	/// Returns the id as a string.
	/// </returns>
	private string GetTheDeviceID()
	{		
		//didn't work... supposed to return IMEI but didn't 
		//return SystemInfo.deviceUniqueIdentifier;
		
		String dID = "";
		
		#if UNITY_ANDROID 
	
			// again, make sure the thread is attached..
			JavaVM.AttachCurrentThread();
						
			// get the Java String object from the Helper java object
			IntPtr str_cacheDir 	= JNI.CallObjectMethod(JavaClass, GetDeviceId);
			Debug.Log("str_cacheDir = " + str_cacheDir);		
			
			// convert the Java String into a Mono string
			IntPtr stringPtr = JNI.GetStringUTFChars(str_cacheDir, 0);
			Debug.Log("stringPtr = " +stringPtr);
			dID = Marshal.PtrToStringAnsi(stringPtr);
			JNI.ReleaseStringUTFChars(str_cacheDir, stringPtr); 		
					
		#endif

		Debug.Log(" Device ID value is = " + dID);
		
		return devID;		
	}		

/// call GetTheDeviceID() when you need to use it
...

The Java Code

The below code is based on requirements by ad networks that need to use a specific device ID for metrics like conversion tracking. It’s the main source file for generating the AndroidJava.jar you need to import into Unity’s Plugins folder.

The Device ID & hashing methods implementations come directly from Millennial Media‘s public wiki.

package com.yourCompany.yourProjectName;

import android.app.Activity;
import android.content.Context;
import android.provider.Settings.Secure;
import android.telephony.TelephonyManager;
import android.util.Log;
import java.io.File;
import java.security.MessageDigest;
import java.security.NoSuchAlgorithmException;

public class JavaClass
{
	private Activity mActivity;
	
	public JavaClass(Activity currentActivity)
	{
		Log.i("JavaClass", "Constructor called with currentActivity = " + currentActivity);
		mActivity = currentActivity;
	}
	
	public String GetDeviceId()
	{		
		// Get the device ID
        String auid = android.provider.Settings.Secure.ANDROID_ID + "android_id";
        
        Context context = mActivity.getApplicationContext();
        
        TelephonyManager tm = (TelephonyManager)context.getSystemService(Context.TELEPHONY_SERVICE);
        if(tm != null)
        {
             try{
             auid = tm.getDeviceId();
             }
             catch (SecurityException e){
                  e.printStackTrace();
             }
             tm = null;
        }
        if(((auid == null) || (auid.length() == 0)) && (context != null))
             auid = Secure.getString(context.getContentResolver(), Secure.ANDROID_ID);
        if((auid == null) || (auid.length() == 0))
             auid = null;
        
        return auid;	
	}
	
	public String GetHashedDeviceIdSHA1()
	{
		String deviceId = GetDeviceId();
		
		String hashedDeviceId = hashInputSHA1(deviceId);
		
		return hashedDeviceId;
	}
	
	public String GetHashedDeviceIdMD5()
	{
		String deviceId = GetDeviceId();
		
		String hashedDeviceId = hashInputMD5(deviceId);
		
		return hashedDeviceId;
	}

	
	/**
     * <p>
     * Hashes the given plain text using the MD5 algorithm.
     * </p>
     * 
     * <p>
     * Example:
     * </p>
     * 
     * <p>
     * 098f6bcd4621d373cade4e832627b4f6
     * </p>
     * 
     * @param input
     *            The raw input which must be hashed.
     * @return A String representing the MD5 hashed output.
     */
    public static String hashInputMD5(String input)
    {
        String rv = null;
          
        if (input != null)
        {
            try
            {
                // Hash the user ID
                byte[] hashBytes = null;
                MessageDigest md = MessageDigest.getInstance("MD5");
                  
                synchronized (md)
                {
                    hashBytes = md.digest(input.getBytes());
                }
                 
                // Convert the hashed bytes into a properly formatted String
                if (hashBytes != null)
                {
                    StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
                    
                    for (byte b : hashBytes)
                    {
                        String hexString = Integer.toHexString(0x00FF & b);
                        sb.append((hexString.length() == 1) ? "0" + hexString
                                                           : hexString);
                    }
                         
                    rv = sb.toString();
                }
            }
            catch (NoSuchAlgorithmException exception)
            {
                // This exception should never occur
            }
        }
         
        return rv;
    }
    
    /**
     * <p>
     * Hashes the given plain text using the SHA-1 algorithm.
     * </p>
     *
     * <p>
     * Example:
     * </p>
     *
     * <p>
     * a94a8fe5ccb19ba61c4c0873d391e987982fbbd3
     * </p>
     *
     * @param userId
     *            The raw input which must be hashed.
     * @return A String representing the SHA-1 hashed input.
     */
    public static String hashInputSHA1(String input)
    {
        String rv = null;
          
        if (input != null)
        {
            try
            {
                // Hash the user ID
                byte[] hashBytes = null;
                MessageDigest md = MessageDigest.getInstance("SHA1");
             
                synchronized (md)
                {
                    hashBytes = md.digest(input.getBytes());
                }
              
                // Convert the hashed bytes into a properly formatted String
                if (hashBytes != null)
                {
                    StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
              
                    for (byte b : hashBytes)
                    {
                        String hexString = Integer.toHexString(0x00FF & b);
                        sb.append((hexString.length() == 1) ? "0" + hexString
                                                           : hexString);
                    }
                 
                    rv = sb.toString();
                }
            }
            catch (NoSuchAlgorithmException exception)
            {
                // This exception should never occur
            }
        }
             
        return rv;
    }
}

AndroidManifest.xml

If you don’t specify the correct permissions for your app and try to do things like make an HTTP request or grab the Device ID, you’ll get an error, like this:

10-02 15:06:49.223  7776  7784 W System.err: java.lang.SecurityException: Requires READ_PHONE_STATE: Neither user 10109 nor current process has android.permission.READ_PHONE_STATE.
10-02 15:06:49.223  7776  7784 W System.err: 	at android.os.Parcel.readException(Parcel.java:1322)
10-02 15:06:49.223  7776  7784 W System.err: 	at android.os.Parcel.readException(Parcel.java:1276)
10-02 15:06:49.223  7776  7784 W System.err: 	at com.android.internal.telephony.IPhoneSubInfo$Stub$Proxy.getDeviceId(IPhoneSubInfo.java:150)
10-02 15:06:49.231  7776  7784 W System.err: 	at android.telephony.TelephonyManager.getDeviceId(TelephonyManager.java:216)
10-02 15:06:49.231  7776  7784 W System.err: 	at com.yourCompany.yourProjectName.JavaClass.GetDeviceId(JavaClass.java:44)
10-02 15:06:49.231  7776  7784 W System.err: 	at com.unity3d.player.UnityPlayer.nativeRender(Native Method)
10-02 15:06:49.231  7776  7784 W System.err: 	at com.unity3d.player.UnityPlayer.onDrawFrame(Unknown Source)
10-02 15:06:49.231  7776  7784 W System.err: 	at android.opengl.GLSurfaceView$GLThread.guardedRun(GLSurfaceView.java:1363)
10-02 15:06:49.231  7776  7784 W System.err: 	at android.opengl.GLSurfaceView$GLThread.run(GLSurfaceView.java:1118)

I grabbed the default one from inside Unity.app on my Mac:

/Applications/Unity/Unity.app/Contents/PlaybackEngines/AndroidDevelopmentPlayer/AndroidManifest.xml

Kept all as is, just added my permissions and it worked:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<manifest
    xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
    package="com.unity3d.player"
	android:installLocation="preferExternal"
    android:versionCode="1"
    android:versionName="1.0">
    <supports-screens
        android:smallScreens="true"
        android:normalScreens="true"
        android:largeScreens="true"
        android:xlargeScreens="true"
        android:anyDensity="true"/>

    <application
		android:icon="@drawable/app_icon"
        android:label="@string/app_name"
        android:debuggable="true">

        //...

    </application>

	
	<!-- PERMISSIONS -->
		<uses-permission android:name="android.permission.INTERNET"/>
		<uses-permission android:name="android.permission.ACCESS_NETWORK_STATE"/>
		<uses-permission android:name="android.permission.READ_PHONE_STATE"/>
	
</manifest>

Some Other Possible Errors

Here’s a fun one, based on a dumb mistake I made. I put the libjni.so into the wrong folder, /Assets/Plugins/, instead of /Assets/Plugins/Android/:

10-02 14:43:17.147  7587  7596 E Unity   : Unable to find jni
10-02 14:43:17.147  7587  7596 E Unity   : Unable to find jni
10-02 14:43:17.155  7587  7596 E Unity   : Unable to find jni
10-02 14:43:17.163  7587  7596 E Unity   : Unable to find jni
10-02 14:43:17.171  7587  7596 E Unity   : Unable to find jni
10-02 14:43:17.171  7587  7596 E Unity   : Unable to find jni
10-02 14:43:17.179  7587  7596 E Unity   : Unable to find jni
10-02 14:43:17.186  7587  7596 E Unity   : Unable to find jni
10-02 14:43:17.897  1410  1410 I wpa_supplicant: WPS-AP-AVAILABLE 
10-02 14:43:17.905  1320  1411 V WifiMonitor: Event [WPS-AP-AVAILABLE ]
10-02 14:43:17.905  1320  1411 D WifiMonitor: WPS Event: WPS-AP-AVAILABLE 
10-02 14:43:18.264  1391  1391 D RadioSignalLevel: evdo dbmLevel: 4, snrLevel: 3
10-02 14:43:18.522  7587  7596 I Unity   : DllNotFoundException: jni
10-02 14:43:18.522  7587  7596 I Unity   :   at (wrapper managed-to-native) JavaVM:AttachCurrentThread ()
10-02 14:43:18.522  7587  7596 I Unity   :   at MyUnityDeviceIdScript.Start () [0x00000] in <filename unknown>:0 
10-02 14:43:18.522  7587  7596 I Unity   :  
10-02 14:43:18.522  7587  7596 I Unity   : (Filename:  Line: -1)
10-02 14:43:18.522  7587  7596 I Unity   : 
10-02 14:43:21.561  7587  7596 I Unity   : checkDeviceID() called
10-02 14:43:21.561  7587  7596 I Unity   :  
10-02 14:43:21.561  7587  7596 I Unity   : (Filename: ./Runtime/ExportGenerated/AndroidManaged/UnityEngineDebug.cpp Line: 43)
10-02 14:43:21.561  7587  7596 I Unity   : 
10-02 14:43:21.671  7587  7596 E Unity   : Unable to find jni
10-02 14:43:21.679  7587  7596 E Unity   : Unable to find jni
10-02 14:43:21.679  7587  7596 E Unity   : Unable to find jni
10-02 14:43:21.679  7587  7596 E Unity   : Unable to find jni
10-02 14:43:21.694  7587  7596 I Unity   : DllNotFoundException: jni
10-02 14:43:21.694  7587  7596 I Unity   :   at (wrapper managed-to-native) JavaVM:AttachCurrentThread ()
10-02 14:43:21.694  7587  7596 I Unity   :   at MyUnityDeviceIdScript.GetUniqueDeviceID () [0x00000] in <filename unknown>:0 
10-02 14:43:21.694  7587  7596 I Unity   :   at MyUnityDeviceIdScript.callTheUrlWithDeviceIDParam () [0x00000] in <filename unknown>:0 
10-02 14:43:21.694  7587  7596 I Unity   :   at GameManager.checkDeviceID () [0x00000] in <filename unknown>:0 
10-02 14:43:21.694  7587  7596 I Unity   :  

As far as I’ve seen, this code only works on a device. If you try to test inside Unity, you’ll get a similar error:

DllNotFoundException: jni
MyUnityDeviceIdScript.Start () (at Assets/Scripts/MyUnityDeviceIdScript.cs:21)

Once you test on a device, if all else if good, this error should go away.

NOTE: looks like this code requires some time to load up the JNI .so file. Not absolutely sure yet, but it appears if I have a fairly complex project and I try to call a JNI related method very soon after app loading, the app crashes with weird mystery output in adb logcat. Need to look into this more to be sure about the details.

Unity3D for Android: “JNI ERROR (app bug): attempt to use stale global reference” with Incorrect Use of Prime31’s Social Networking Plugin

I was porting a Unity3D-built iOS game to Android the other day, while using the awesome Social Networking plugin from Prime31, and got this fun Java error:

E/dalvikvm( 5539): JNI ERROR (app bug): attempt to use stale global reference 0x32
E/dalvikvm( 5539): VM aborting
F/libc    ( 5539): Fatal signal 11 (SIGSEGV) at 0xdeadd00d (code=1), thread 5583 (UnityMain)
... 

The above error crashed my app consistently.

I was lucky in this case because I was fairly sure where it’s coming from, suspecting an unnecessary call to FacebookAndroid.logout() inside a check for !FacebookAndroid.isSessionValid() check. Not my proudest coding moment, for sure.

Once I put a Debug.Log() right before the FacebookAndroid.logout() call and right after. The error changed to… or perhaps a new error started showing up around the same place in the debug log:

W/dalvikvm( 2910): threadid=9: thread exiting with uncaught exception (group=0x4001d5a0)
E/AndroidRuntime( 2910): FATAL EXCEPTION: GLThread 10
E/AndroidRuntime( 2910): java.lang.NullPointerException
E/AndroidRuntime( 2910): 	at com.prime31.FacebookPlugin.logout(FacebookPlugin.java:187)
E/AndroidRuntime( 2910): 	at com.unity3d.player.UnityPlayer.nativeRender(Native Method)
E/AndroidRuntime( 2910): 	at com.unity3d.player.UnityPlayer.onDrawFrame(Unknown Source)
E/AndroidRuntime( 2910): 	at android.opengl.GLSurfaceView$GLThread.guardedRun(GLSurfaceView.java:1363)
E/AndroidRuntime( 2910): 	at android.opengl.GLSurfaceView$GLThread.run(GLSurfaceView.java:1118)
W/ActivityManager( 1323):   Force finishing activity com.companyName.MyBundleIDHere/com.unity3d.player.UnityPlayerNativeActivity

The app stopped crashing but the java.lang.NullPointerException didn’t go away either. Still looking into it.

Unity3D for iOS: Storing a New High Score in Parse via UniParse while Adding a Value to a _ptr Field

So far this is the only way I’ve been able to successfully do this. I wonder if I’m missing something & there’s actually a better way to do this using only 1 call to Parse. Anyone? Feel free to prove me wrong. Please.

...
// localStorage is a PlayerPrefs instance that lets us grab values stored on the device that's running the app
...			 

// MyGameUsers is a Parse Class that stores unique user ID's as the parse Class' objectId's
// change MyGameUsers to your own Class name where appropriate.
var usersTablePointer = new ParseClass("/classes/MyGameUsers");

//"f2H4saD8" is an arbitrary value for demo purposes, a typical objectId from a Parse table  
string myQuery = "where={\"objectId\": \""+ "f2H4saD8" + "\" }";             				
			
ParseInstanceCollection prseList = gamerTablePointer.List(myQuery);		

//wait to get the Gamer object w/ our objectID specified in myQuery 
while(!prseList.isDone) yield return null;
			
ParseInstance[] items = prseList.items;		
				
// post a new record to the Score table in Parse:
// change MyGameScores to your own Class name where appropriate.
var myGameScoresClass = new ParseClass("/classes/MyGameScores");

//create a new record in the db table (represented by the ParseClass)
var myNewScore = myGameScoresClass.New();

//1034 is just an arbitrary score value; you can grab it from your own variable value			
myNewScore.Set( "Score", 1034 ); 	
myNewScore.Set( "MyGameUsers_ptr", items[0] as object );

//create the new record in the server side Parse Class (table) called "MyGameScores" (or your own class name)
myNewScore.Create();
				
//Wait until it's finished the save in Parse.
while(!myNewScore.isDone) yield return null;						

Debug.Log("myNewScore is done; check it in the MyGameScores table in the relevant Parse.com account.");		 

Unity3D for iOS and Android: UniWeb and UniParse plugins for HTTP

If you’ve ever had to work with a REST API from within a Unity project or use web services and back end data in general, you’re probably seen the limitation of Unity’s built in WWW class. Lucky for us, the developers at Different Methods released an awesome plugin that provides full HTTP functionality for Unity3D. It’s called UniWeb. UniParse is a free plugin, still in beta, that works with UniWeb and a backend service called Parse.

I owe a special thank you to Simon Wittber of Different Methods for super speedy and excellent customer service help with resolving a Unity Asset Store download issue.

Here’re a few deeper UniParse examples:

My buddy Steve, went through the following basic steps to get UniWeb up and running on an iPhone 4S and and several Android models. The Android phones included:

  • Motorola DroidX (Android 2.3.4)
  • Samsung Galaxy (Android 2.1)
  • Samsung Galaxy Nexus (Android 4.0.4, Ice Cream Sandwich)

Testing UniWeb

What is UniWeb? It’s an “HTTP glue” plugin for Unity3D. It allows for much more functionality than Unity’s built in WWW class. For example, Parse’s REST API sometimes requires the use of the PUT method instead of GET or POST. WWW only works with GET & POST. UniWeb handles PUT just fine. While I haven’t tried all of UniWeb’s functionality, it has classes to handle stuff like JSON parsing & Socket connections.

Here’s a basic test we did over HTTP:

  1. Installed the UniWeb .unitypacakge
  2. Opened up the basic UniWebExample scene that comes with UniWeb
  3. At first, we got a minor error telling us the socket connection failed because the socket server doesn’t exist. This was easily fixed – we removed the Socket script from the test GameObject.
  4. The UniWebExample image loading script worked perfectly
  5. Next, we ran into a cross compilation error when we tried to put the test app on an iPhone. Steve fixed this by switching the Api Compatibility Level from “.NET 2.0 Subset” to .”NET 2.0″ in Build Settings > Player Settings (under iOS platform settings, Other Settings > Optimization)
  6. Shortly after Steve sent an APK of this test app to several folks with Android devices and the app worked well for them. The images loaded & cycled through once, just like on the iPhone version.

Testing UniParse with UniWeb

In layman’s terms Parse is a back end service for mobile developers. It frees mobile developers up from having to code their own databases & middleware language logic to manage data between those databases & mobile applications. UniParse is Different Methods’ plugin for talking to Parse from inside a game or mobile app built with Unity3D.

The UniParse plugin uses an Update() method that does an HTTP ‘PUT’. There’s also Delete, which does HTTP ‘Delete’.

Testing UniWeb over HTTPS

coming soon…

Unity3D for iOS: Etcetera plugin, “error CS0103: The name `EtceteraBinding’ does not exist in the current context””

"Assets/Plugins/Etcetera/testSupport/EtceteraGUIManager.cs(38,38): error CS0103: The name `EtceteraBinding' does not exist in the current context"

The error poped up from this line inside EtceteraGUIManager.cs’s Start() method (Line 11):

EtceteraBinding.setPopoverPoint( 500, 200 );

The solution turned out to be simple: I forgot to set the project to the iOS Platform. Go to File > Build Settings, choose iOS and click Switch Platform.

If you open the EtceteraBinding.cs class in MonoDevelop (/Plugins/EtceteraBinding/EtceteraBinding.cs) before you switch your project to target iOS, you’ll notice that much of the code is grayed out. That’s because the entire class is enclosed in iOS Preprocessor Statements like #if…#endif:

#if UNITY_IPHONE
...
#endif

Once you switch your platform in Build Settings, the code inside the #if will have normal highlighting and the above error will go away.